Not just a culture from overseas that we have to present in General English subject, but in semester 1, Communication Science subject, we are being asked to understand and present one of Indonesia's provinces. The unique thing is that, we were doing it by using a traditional costume to represent that province. Provinces that are chosen by my class that time, 11-1A, consists of Bali, Papua, and North Sulawesi. My group chose South Sulawesi, the southest and most developed province in Sulawesi Island to present. Here is the paper, showing our understanding about the culture in South Sulawesi.
Located in the south part of Sulawesi Island, South Sulawesi is one of the most developed provinces in Indonesia. South Sulawesi has a reputation for being one of the main domestic and International tourist destinations. Its magnificent surroundings, modern city, strategic location for trade, and unique culture of its people, has become major factor for the development of South Sulawesi. In this paper, we will present South Sulawesi history, economy, tourism, and its capital city, Makassar, as our main focus.
We choose South Sulawesi basically to introduce this province which has a unique culture, and a developing province with its environment and modern city living. The most unique thing in this province is the way people live in the city, they live in a modern city but they still hold their belief and tradition strongly. Even though there are four main racial in the province, added by Chinese people, they can still live in harmony.
The objective in this paper is to show that as a province, South Sulawesi have a great culture, tourist attraction, modern city, and most important, the potential as being develop to become better in the future.
Before the Proclamation of Indonesia Independence, South Sulawesi was divided into three kingdoms, which is Luwu, Gowa, and Bone. It’s also have four ethics, consist of Bugis, Makassar, Mandar, and Toraja. Because of the strategic location, South Sulawesi is very important as the transit harbor for Europe, India, Arab, Melayu, and Chinese trader.
South Sulawesi become the part of Indonesia from the inisiatif by all the king who ruled that time in this province. They’re agree to join as one governance, and become the part of Indonesia’s province.
Year by year, South Sulawesi economy has growth positively, although, the province GDP percentage in 2004 are lower than before (5,30% in 2004, 5,32% in 2003). The biggest income is from tourism, agriculture, fishing, hotel and restaurant, and public land transportation.
The people in South Sulawesi consist of four racial, which is Makassar, Bugis, Mandar, and Toraja. Also, in the capital city, there are also a minimum number of Chinese people.
Makassar people, also known as mangkassara, mean ‘they who are open to everyone’. In old days, these people have a great history. They are known as the great Indonesian explorer. In 14-17 century, in the name of Gowa Kingdom, they conquer all part of Sulawesi island, East Kalimantan, East and West Nusa Tenggara, Maluku, Papua, even Brunei and North Australia. The Pinisi, International well known ship, which becomes the pride of South Sulawesi, are invented by Makassar people.
Bugis people mainly live in Luwu, Bone, Wajo, Soppeng, Suppa, Pinrang, Sidenreng, and Rappang. Bugis people mainly income come from agriculture and fishing. Most of them are also a local merchant. Bugis community also can be found in Philippine, Malaysia, Brunei, and Thailand, concerning that a long time ago, they are also an explorer. The number of Bugis people in South Sulawesi is 4 million.
Mandar is another racial in South Sulawesi. Originally come from West Sulawesi. In South Sulawesi itself, Mandar is a minority. They can be found in east part of this province. The population is 30.000 people.
Toraja people live in mountain area of South Sulawesi. Torajan believe that their ancestor come from heaven. The myth said that Torajan ancestor use ‘heaven stair’ to come to Toraja. Torajan are known for their traditional ceremony of ‘Rambu Solo’ and ‘Rambu Tuka’. Rambu Solo ceremony has been passed down for generations. It is a celebration to give respect to the deceased elders or parents. Rambu Solo ceremony is divided into several stages according to their social strata, they are:
•Dipasang Bongi, which is a one day ceremony
•Dipatallung Bongi, which is a three days ceremony held in a house and sacrifice
•Dipalimang Bongi is a burial ceremony for five days which is held around the house and sacrifice
•Dipapitung Bongi is a burial ceremony which last for a week and each passing day, an animal is sacrifice
The traditional ceremony ‘Rambu Tuka’ was invented to celebrate a newly built or renovated traditional house. It was held once in every 50 or 60 years. Rambu Tuka is also known as Ma’Bua, Meroek or Mangrara Banua Sura. Rambu Tuka ceremony is followed by several traditional dances and music.
Chinese people lived in the city. They come to South Sulawesi from other part of Asia in 16th century. Chinese people have a great influence to South Sulawesi, especially Makassar economy. Most of them are trader.
Majority of South Sulawesi is Islam. Major Christian believer is Torajan. For Chinese, most of them are Buddhist. Baju Bodo is the traditional clothes from South Sulawesi. The traditional clothes come from Bugis people, and it’s become the symbol of South Sulawesi. In marriage ceremony, some couple still wears Baju Bodo to show their identity as South Sulawesi people, and to appreciate this traditional clothes which can’t be seen often because of the modernization.
By seeing the cultural differentiation in South Sulawesi, we can see how well they respect others. Makassar and Bugis, as the biggest society in the province really respect Mandar, Toraja, and Chinese as a minority. Not only respecting each other, but they also combine each other culture and make South Sulawesi as one, even with 5 different ethnics. This mean they accept other culture, but still have their own culture (cultural relativism). Even with high developing province they lived in, the Asian collectivistic cultures still become the part of this province.
South Sulawesi people who lived outside the province can be seen in all Indonesia’s provinces. Most of them lived in the city, especially Jakarta, Surabaya, Palu, and Jayapura. Those who lived outside South Sulawesi, still hold their culture, especially Makassar language, which can be seen in Makassar community. They also form a large group for South Sulawesi people which call “Angin Mamiri” in Jakarta. This is proofing that people of South Sulawesi, even though they lived outside their province, they still keep and try to develop their culture. Some of them open restaurant which sell Makassar foods, or even open make a small group which consists their friends from South Sulawesi. Those simple things can be seen as a result of how they really appreciate their culture, and try to develop it. They lived in such a modern live, but never forget their mothertounge, and their own culture.
South Sulawesi has a numerous tourism object. We will present some of the most attractive and also, in this sector, we mainly focus on tourism object outside Makassar, as we are going to focus later on the capital city.
The main tourist destination in South Sulawesi is the Tana Toraja. It has outstanding surroundings, unique culture, and a very nice people. Traditional ceremony, beautiful crafting, and unique tourist object are the entire factors which make Tana Toraja very interesting. Also, not just as the tourist destination, Tana Toraja also well known for its Torabica Coffee. Tana Toraja located in the central area of South Sulawesi province. Tana Toraja also a place where Tongkonan, South Sulawesi traditional house can be found.
Soppeng is one of the most beautiful city in South Sulawesi. A long time ago, this city is a place where kings ruled. Soppeng are famous for its bats hanging on the tree in the city without disturb by the traffic.
Leang-leang is a cave where we can find human’s painting from over 5000 years ago.
Located 70km south from Makassar, Malino is a mountain area with a lot of tropical flowers, and fresh fruits. In this area, there is Bawakaraeng Mountain which some people still believe that the mountain is a sacred place.
Bantimurung is the name of the highest waterfall in South Sulawesi. In this place, we can see a lot of butterfly species. The people of South Sulawesi called Bantimurung as The Kingdom of Butterfly. In Alfred Russel Wallace (British Biolog, 1823-1913) book, The Malay Archipelago, he wrote that he experience the beautiful butterflies heaven in Bantimurung.
The capital city of South Sulawesi, Makassar, is the biggest city in East Indonesia. This city is a modern multicultural city, with four ethnicity lived here, Makassar, Bugis, Mandar, and Toraja. Also, there are many Chinese people who lived in the city. There are no racial issues in the city, especially to the minority. Chinese, in the other hand, have a great influence to Makassar development.
Makassar are known for its beautiful Losari Beach, and other tourist destination. It’s modern because it has a lot of malls, skyscrapers, hotels, and restaurants. Also know for its unique foods, and delicious sea food.
Since the 16th century, Makassar is the most important trading city in east Indonesia. Kings in South Sulawesi implement the rule in Makassar, where all traders from all racial, religion, and tradition could open their store in Makassar, making this city very crowded. This city, have a great toleration for any religion, even though Islam become the majority. That’s make a lot of European, Chinese, and Arabian people come to Makassar. Unfortunately, since The Dutch invaded and conquer Makassar, they block all the access for local trader, and VOC monopoly the city economy.
b.Modern and Developing City
Makassar is a modern and developing city. It can be seen by a lot of malls in the city, like Mall Ratu Indah, Makassar Trade Center, Diamond Plaza, Panakukang Trade Centre, Latanete Plaza, Ramayana Plaza and Global Trade Centre. Also, Makassar have a modern flyover which can’t be seen in other modern city in Sulawesi island. There is also Tanjung Bunga, Makassar newest and most modern residences. Because of its modern living, Tanjung Bunga is called The Pride of Makassar.
Other than a modern malls, Makassar have a major tourist destination in the city, some of them are:
Build by the Dutch, this fort located near Makassar harbor. This fort was build by VOC and become their governing and trading base.
2.Somba Opu Street
Known all over Makassar as the center of gold jewelry. Almost every store in this street sells gold and most of them are running by Chinese. Other store sells Makassar souvenirs. Somba Opu Street located near Losari Beach, making it a strategic place for tourists to shop.
There’s a lot of Buddhist Temple in this street, showing that people in Makassar tolerate the difference of their society.
Kayangan Island is an island that has a lot of resort, restaurants, children playing ground, and white sand beach. Even though it is an island, Khayangan still the part of Makassar city.
The most attractive tourist object is no other than Losari Beach. We can see a beautiful sunset in the beach and taste the exotic South Sulawesi traditional foods where can be found all over the beach.
For more than one kilometers, we can find people who sells traditional foods, like pisang epe, pisang ijo, es pallu butung, songkolo, etc.